Category Archives: Project:1812

War of 1812 project related posts.

Project:1812 – William McKay

Fur Trader, Loyalist, Indian Agent, and Officer. William McKay was born in the Mohawk Valley of New York State in 1772. The son of former Non-Commissioned Officer Donald McKay. His father had seen service during the French-Indian War and fought during the assault on Quebec City. Remaining loyal to the crown the family moved to Upper Canada’s St. Lawerence Valley during the American Revolution settling in what would become Glengarry County in Ontario. William and his older brother, Alexander, joined the North West Company in 1790. McKay would begin to trade throughout the northwest of British North America spending much of his time in the Mississippi River Valley. Serving the company for over ten years, he retired to Montreal in 1807 as one of their more prominent partners. In Montreal, he was admitted to the illustrious Beaver Club and married Eliza Davidson in 1808. They would go on to have two sons, with only one surviving infancy.

52:320TXP - Week 30 - The Last Blockhouse
The original 1781 LaColle Blockhouse in Quebec.
Modified Anniversary Speed Graphic – Fuji Fujinon-W 1:5.6/125 – Kodak Tri-X Pan (320TXP) – Kodak Xtol (1+1) 8:30 @ 20C

Despite his retirement, McKay answered the call, when the United States declared war on Britain and moved to invade the Canadas in 1812. McKay’s knowledge of the northwest terrain and peoples made him invaluable to Major General Sir Isaac Brock. McKay along with Robert Dickson became agents for the general and ferried messages from the Niagara Region and the colonial capital at York to the northern post at Fort St. Joseph near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. These early actions allowed the garrison to capture Mackinac Island at the beginning of the war. McKay would see his first combat in November 1812 at LaColle Mill. He was promoted to Captain and assigned to the 5th Select Embodied Militia of Lower Canada and dedicated himself to maintain the supply lines to the northwest specifically the British-allied Native tribes living there. His efforts saw him gain popularity among the natives and the fur traders living there. McKay would go on to command the Michigan Fencibles, a small provincial force raised from volunteers among the citizens of Mackinac Island.

Project:1812 - Fort Mackinac
One of several blockhouses that line the walls of Fort Mackinac
Rolleiflex 2.8F – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Kodak TMax 100 (100TMX) – Kodak Xtol (1+1) 10:00 @ 20C

In the summer of 1814, the Americans under the direction of Governor William Clark established a garrison at the small fur trading post of Praire du Chien. McKay, who had remained popular among the troops, local population, and native warriors, was giving a local promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel and assigned the task of taking the small community to maintain British control of the northwest fur trade. With an irregular force of 650 militia and native warriors, McKay forced the surrender of Fort Shelby taking it as his own in July of 1814 the post was renamed Fort McKay in his honour.

Project:1812 - The Forts of Prairie Du Chien
A reconstruction of one of two blockhouses that stood at Fort Shelby/Fort McKay/Fort Crawford in Praire du Chien
Hasselblad 500c – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Ilford FP4+ @ ASA-100 – Photographer’s Formulary Developer 23 (stock) 6:00 @ 20C

McKay would be promoted the position of assistant superintendent for the Northwest in the British Indian Department (BID) and had the unfortunate task following the end of the War of counseling the local tribes that had remained allied to the British that they should seek friendly relation with the American government. McKay would continue to work out of the British outpost on Drumond Island as the regional superintendent for the BID from 1820 to 1828 and oversaw the creation of the reserve system in the region to provide land for the native tribes in the Northwest who wished to remain allies or rather wards of the British Crown. He would move back to Montreal in 1828 and take up the superintendent role for that region in the BID until his death in 1832. Today history barely remembers the efforts of William McKay, his efforts overshadowed by the larger, more public battles of the conflict. His efforts are non-the-less just as important in maintaining British control over the Northwest.

Written with Files from:
Berton, Pierre. Flames across the Border, 1813-1814. Markham, Ont.: Penguin, 1988. Print.
Web: www.biographi.ca/en/bio/mckay_william_6E.html

Project:1812 – Robert Dickson

One of the unsung heroes of the Anglo-American War of 1812, the burly red-haired Robert Dickson was born to a merchant father in Dumfries Scotland in 1765. After his father’s business had failed, Robert along with his two brothers travelled to Upper Canada to work for their uncle, Robert Hamilton. Hamilton was a wealthy gentleman in Upper Canada, and while the two brothers found success with Hamilton’s business the dull clerical work did not appeal to the adventurous Robert. Robert would find his element in the Northwest upon his posting to Mackinac Island. He expanded his trade network among the northern tribes in both Upper Canada and the Mississippi River. His travelled saw him marry the daughter of Sioux Chief Red Thunder in 1797. Robert and his wife Totowin would go on to have four children. Dickson would continue to trade through the early 19th century establishing his post on Lake Traverse in what is Minnesota. Among the native tribes, the Scotsman would earn the name Red Haired Man.

Project:1812 - Fort St. Joseph
Some of the remains of Fort St. Joseph as it stands today.
Rolleiflex 2.8F – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Kodak Tri-X 400 (400TX) – Kodak Xtol (1+1) 9:00 @ 20C

Upon the American declaration of war in 1812, Dickson’s allegiances and knowledge of the northern areas of Upper Canada and the natives who lived there made Dickson an ideal agent for Major General Sir Isaac Brock. Brock would employ Dickson along with other fur traders to ferry messages from his headquarters to Fort St. Joseph. But Dickson also recruited and secured native warriors for the general, ensuring their loyalty in the coming war. Dickson would command a large group of these warriors during the successful capture of Mackinac Island in 1812 and would fight alongside Brock and Tecumseh a few months later at the capture of Fort Detroit.

Project:1812 - Capture of Mackinac Island
The site of the British landing during 1812 that saw the capture of Mackinac Island.
Rolleiflex 2.8F – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Kodak TMax 100 (100TMX) – Kodak D-76 (1+1) 9:30 @ 20C

His actions saw an appointment to the British Indian Department in 1813. The trouble was that 1813 was not a good year for the native allies or the British. Dickson would serve at the successful captures of Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson that same year and when Procter retreated from Amherstburg, Dickson would head north to attempt to regain and maintain the trust and allegiance of the northern tribes. He managed to hold on to some of the tribes by serving in the successful defence of Mackinac Island and the capture of the two US Schooners Tigress and Scorpion in 1814. During the winter of 1814 he was sent to support the British garrison at Prairie du Chien, this would cause an issue for the fur trader, accused of showing favouritism to the Sioux nation and usurping British military authority. While the case would go to court, Dickson would be cleared of all charges, granted the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and retired from the Indian Department with a full pension.

The Mighty Mississippi
The Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, Dickson spent much of his life on this river.
Intrepid – Fuji Fujinon-W 1:5.6/125 (Orange) – Kodak TMax 100 – FA-1027 (1+14) 9:30 @ 20C

The trouble was that Dickson had no desire to retire entirely. But the war had ruined his fur trade business. He did however still have his reputation. He would apply without success to the Indian Department’s vacant superintendent position at Amherstburg but would join up with Lord Selkirk and the Red River Colony. Dickson would try to supply the colony with beef and population, both without success after Lord Selkirk’s death. By 1818 he had returned to the Mississippi trading with Astor’s American Fur Company. He would continue to operate as an agent of Astor’s until his death on Drummond Island in 1823. Dickson like many fur traders are largely unknown in the greater story of the Anglo-American War of 1812, but they are no less important than the major players that history remembers. If it wasn’t for men like William McKay and Robert Dickson, the war might have gone differently for the British than what happened.

Written with files from:
Berton, Pierre. Flames across the Border, 1813-1814. Markham, Ont.: Penguin, 1988. Print.
Web: www.biographi.ca/en/bio/dickson_robert_6E.html

Project:1812 – Major-General Robert McDouall (CB)

Robert McDouall was born to a merchant father in March of 1774 in the town of Stranraer, Scotland. Educated at the Felsted School both his father and uncle hoped he would follow in the family trade as a merchant, placing young Robert at a business in London. Robert, however, was drawn to the military life much to his father’s dismay and with his reluctant approval purchased a commission as an ensign in the 49th (Hertfordshire) Regiment of Foot only to three days later purchase a lieutenant commission in the 8th (King’s) Regiment of foot in 1797. He served during the 1801 Egyptian Campaign against the army of France under Napoleon Bonaparte. His service earned him a promotion to Captain in 1804. He continued to fight France at Copenhagen in 1807 and the invasion of Martinique in 1809. During the action, McDouall met the Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, General George Prevost. So when the 8th transferred to Quebec City in 1810, Prevost asked for McDouall to act as his aide-de-camp when war with America began in 1812.

Project:1812 - Fort Mackinac
One of Fort Mackinac’s blockhouses. The post was McDouall’s most notable command from 1814 to 1815.
Modified Anniversary Speed Graphic – Fuji Fujinon-W 1:5.6/125 – Efke PL25 – PMK Pyro (1+2+100) 7:30 @ 20C

During the first year of the war, the 8th Regiment of Foot remained in Quebec City. Following the Americans capture of the Niagara Penisula in the spring of 1813, McDouall accompanied General Prevost and his failed attack against the American naval post at Sacketts Harbor. McDouall went on to bring orders to General John Vincent at Burlington Heights and would go on to participate in the Battle of Stoney Creek, an action he would later claim to have suggested to General Vincent. For his efforts, he was granted a promotion to major and transferred to the Glengarry Light Infantry. The regiment was a locally raised provincial unit made up of mostly those of Scottish descent living in Upper Canada, and Prevost wanted officers of Scottish decent commanding the unit. McDouall would be sent back to London that summer with dispatches and be given a brevet (field) rank of Lieutenant-Colonel before returning to the Canadas later in 1813.

Project:1812 - The Battle of Stoney Creek
The Battle of Stoney Creek was McDouall’s first action in the War of 1812
Modified Anniversary Speed Graphic – Fuji Fujinon-W 1:5.6/125 – Ilford Ortho Copy Plus – PMK Pyro (1+2+100) 12:00 @ 20C

With the Americans in control of Lake Erie following the battle of Lake Erie, Prevost needed to create a new supply route to the far post on Mackinac Island. McDouall was selected to lead the expedition and carve a new road out of the wilderness in the winter and spring of 1814. McDouall’s force would bring Yonge Street from Lake Ontario out to Lake Simcoe, and up the Nottawasaga River to Georgen Bay. His connections to General Prevost would grant him command of the Mackinac Island post as well. This action allowed him to defend both the island post in the summer of 1814 from an American attempt to recapture it. He also authorized the capture of the fur trading post of Prarie Du Chien and two American schooners on Lake Huron ensuring British dominance in the Northwest for the remainder of the war.

Project:1812 - Battle of Mackinac Island
The Mackinanc battlefield (now a golf course) where McDouall turned back an American attempt to retake the island in 1814.
Modified Anniversary Speed Graphic – Fuji Fujinon-W 1:5.6/125 (Orange-22) – Efke PL25 – PMK Pyro (1+2+100) 7:30 @ 20C

McDouall was deeply concerned when word of the war’s end reached Mackinac Island; he felt that the British had been duped by their American counterparts when they were forced to return everything to how it was before the war began. While he continued to decry publicly the Treaty of Gent he oversaw the evacuation and restoration of Mackinac Island before taking up command of the small British post on nearby Drummond Island in 1815. He stayed for only a year before returning to his native Scotland and his hometown of Stranraer.

Project:1812 - Fort Holmes
The historic marker of Fort Holmes, originally constructed as Fort George on Mackinac Island’s high ground under orders from McDouall.
Rolleiflex 2.8F – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Kodak TMax 100 (100TMX) – Kodak D-76 (1+1) 9:30 @ 20C

For his actions, McDouall was invested as a Companion in the Order of Bath in 1817. He would receive a promotion to full Colonel then Major-General by 1841, but he never saw active service, effectively retired on half-pay. He focused his energies and finances with the support of the Free Church of Scotland, assisting both their colleges and libraries in Edinburgh and Toronto before his death in 1848. Despite playing a significant role in Upper Canada during the war, there is little to remember him through Ontario and Michigan. There is a historical plaque in the settlement of Glengarry Landing mentioning his actions of 1814, but the settlement took the name of his regiment rather than taking his name.

Glengarry Landing
Glengarry Landing near the Nottawasaga River along Highway 26 between Stayner and Barrie, Ontario
Intrepid – Schneider-Kreuznach Symmar-S 1:5.6/210 – Adox CHS 100 II – Blazinal (1+25) 5:00 @ 20C

Written with files from:
Web: www.biographi.ca/en/bio/mcdouall_robert_7E.html

Project:1812 – Siege of Prairie du Chien

While one of the least known engagements during the War of 1812, the siege of Prarie du Chien, was part of the drama that happened during the entire span of the war and sealed British dominance in the northwest until the signing of the Treaty of Gent that ended the way. The battle was the only one fought on the soil of what would become the state of Wisconsin. Two hundred years ago the small fur trading post of Prarie du Chien was a part of the Illinois Territory. Founded by the French in the late 1600s, turned over to British control following the French-Indian War of the mid-1700s and became a part of the new United States of America until the Treaty of Paris in 1783. While officially the post and the small population of fewer than one hundred people were American citizens the post was British in all but name, and the population was mostly French.

The Mighty Mississippi
The Mississippi River as it stands today near the battlesite
Intrepid – Fuji Fujinon-W 1:5.6/125 (Orange) – Kodak TMax 100 – FA-1027 (1+14) 9:30 @ 20C

But the United States did see the value in the small settlement, but the start of the War of 1812 saw their energies focused elsewhere. But when William Clark (of Lewis & Clark Fame) became governor of the Missouri Territory in 1813 he started to see a problem with a very pro-British settlement to his north. Should the British decide to enforce their influence at Prarie du Chien there would be little to stop them from sailing south on the Mississippi and capturing St. Louis and gaining an even bigger foothold. Governor Clark became annoyed as the far-flung outpost received little support from Washington. Using his authority he spoke with two local leaders, Fredrick Yeizer and John Sullivan both captains in the local militia. Together they raised a volunteer force of 150 men on a sixty-day enlistment. The volunteer army gained strength by the arrival of 61 men of the 7th US Infantry under the command of Brevet Major Zachary Taylor (who would become President of the United States). Though destined for Fort Clark, Governor Clark presented his case, and Major Taylor agreed to head north to establish a garrison at Prarie du Chien. Three gunboats would provide transport north. Just as the expedition was to start, Taylor was recalled to Kentucky to attend a family member who was ill, in his place Lieutenant Joseph Perkins, who was in St. Louis recruiting for the 24th US Infantry was installed as the commander of the regulars. The expedition departed St. Louis on the 1st of May, with Governor Clark joining them a few days up-river. The flotilla saw minor action along the route but landed without resistance by early June. Using a local warehouse of the Mackinac Trading Company, Clark realized they would have to work fast as his volunteer force was already half-way through their enlistment period. Soon a wooden palisade fort with a pair of blockhouses rose on a mound to the north of the village proper. Governor Clark named the post, Fort Shelby, after Governor Isaac Shelby, the governor of his native territory of Kentucky. With the post’s construction well in hand, Governor Clark returned to St. Louis with much fanfare upon his return. But in the North Perkins realized that if he didn’t have the post done soon, he would lose a majority of his force. But by the 19th, the post was nearly complete.

Project:1812 - The Forts of Prairie Du Chien
A reconstruction of a blockhouse that would have stood over Fort Shelby and later the first Fort Crawford.
Hasselblad 500c – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Ilford FP4+ @ ASA-100 – Photographer’s Formulary Developer 23 (stock) 6:00 @ 20C

The local population was not too pleased with the arrival of the Americans and three days later two men showed up at Mackinac Island with news for the commandant of the post, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert McDouall. McDouall was disturbed at the news of the American garrison and was even more troubled with natives brought rumors of violence against their tribes at the hands of the Americans at Prarie du Chien. These rumors reached McDouall as the native allies cried out for revenge. The main reason that McDouall was concerned was for the extensive fur trade network, and without Prarie du Chien it would be difficult to maintain the supply lines. McDouall had his problems with a limited force and word of an American attack against Mackinac, but he could not ignore his allies. Giving local militia captain a field promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel, William McKay, would take a force from his unit, the Michigan Fencibles along with local traders that formed a group called the Mississippi Volunteers, a single 3-pound field gun with a Royal Artillery crew was attached to McKay’s force as well. The local tribes provided warriors from the Sioux and Winnebago tribes commanded by two captains from the British Indian Department Thomas Anderson and Joseph Rolette. Departing on the 28th of June, McKay would gather more militia and native troops at Green Bay. When McKay’s force landed at Prarie du Chien on the 17th of July it numbered 650 troops. For Perkins he only saw his numbers drop as a majority of his volunteer force left with Captain Sullivan, Captain Yeizer was willing to stay with forty volunteers to man the gunboat Governor Clark. But the sudden arrival of McKay gave the American garrison a start when Captain Anderson approached Lieutenant Perkins, who was out on a ride with the order of surrender. The garrison refused the surrender order promising to fight to the last man.

Project:1812 - The Forts of Prairie Du Chien
The historic plaque on site outlining the battle.
Hasselblad 500c – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Ilford FP4+ @ ASA-100 – Photographer’s Formulary Developer 23 (stock) 6:00 @ 20C

McKay realizing that his biggest threat was the gunboat on the river ordered his lone artillery piece to fire on it first. The Royal Artillery crew worked fast, moving the gun around to give the crew aboard the gunboat the impression they were under attack by multiple guns and after a few hours had taken massive damage. Rather than risk the boat and the crew Captain Yeizer cut his moorings and headed south. The fort’s garrison watched in dismay, trying to call them back, as most of their supplies and ammunition were aboard the gunboat still. Both sides managed to fight to a stalemate, with both McKay and Perkins running low on ammunition, McKay going as far as to collect the American round shots and fire them back, of course, neither side realized this of the other. Inside the fort was another story, the well had run dry, and in an attempt to deepen it, the whole thing had collapsed. And while McKay was preparing heated shots to set Fort Shelby on fire, Lieutenant Perkins raises the white flag of truce, after two days of solid resistance. Both Perkins and McKay agree to delay a formal surrender for fear of retaliation against the Americans by the native warriors in light of the rumors. McKay would use his Michigan Fencibles to guard both the American prisoners and the native troops before the formal surrender the next day and then has the Americans escorted down-river without any incident. With a British flag flying over the fort, now named Fort McKay the northwest was firmly in British hands. The Americans would twice send a force to attempt to retake Prarie du Chien both would be stopped first at the Rock Island Rapids and again at the Battle of Credit Island. The British maintained the post at Prairie du Chien throughout the remainder of the war, destroying it in 1815 when they marched out to conform to the terms of the Treaty of Gent.

Project:1812 - The Forts of Prairie Du Chien
Probably not the original well from the battle, but I figured it would be good to have a photo of one anyways.
Hasselblad 500c – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Ilford FP4+ @ ASA-100 – Photographer’s Formulary Developer 23 (stock) 6:00 @ 20C

Today you can still visit the site of the battle, and while the town has moved over to the mainland, the battle site is open to the public as part of the Historic Villa Louis, a historic home built in the 1840s after the American Army abandoned the site completely for a mainland fort in 1832. But visitors can see the footings from the 1816 American fort (Fort Crawford) and a rebuilt blockhouse. The site also hosts a reenactment of the siege in July.

A special thanks to the volunteers at Villa Louis for helping me out and letting me freely wander the site for photographic purposes.

Written with files from:
Berton, Pierre. Flames across the Border, 1813-1814. Markham, Ont.: Penguin, 1988. Print.
Ferguson, Gillum. Illinois in the War of 1812. Champaign, IL.: University of Illinois Press, 2012. Print.
Collins, Gilbert. Guidebook to the Historic Sites of the War of 1812. Toronto: Dundurn, 2006. Print.
Web: villalouis.wisconsinhistory.org/About/History.aspx

Project:1812 – Fort Shelby, Fort McKay, and Fort Crawford

The small fur trading post of Prairie du Chien was founded long before the British or Americans came to the old northwest. But rather the post was founded by the French in 1685 and soon became a small post along the Mississippi trade route. Even after the British gained the territory at the end of the French-Indian/Seven Years War in 1763 the population remained French, but the loyalties shifted to the British and remained there even after the Treaty of Paris ceded the territory to the newly formed United States of America.

Project:1812 - The Forts of Prairie Du Chien
A reconstruction of one of the fort’s blockhouses

The first effort to fortify the town took place in 1814 when an expedition led by Governor William Clark (of Lewis & Clark Fame) established an American garrison in the small community. Governor Clark feared that the British may choose to enforce their influence in the community then march on St. Louis with nothing to stop them. While the community did nothing to resist the Americans they were not happy with the new garrison and alerted the nearest British outpost, Mackinac Island, of them. Clark’s fort; named after Isaac Shelby, governor of his native territory of Kentucky consisted of a warehouse annexed from the Mackinac Trading Company, two blockhouses and the northwest and southwest corners surrounded by a wooden palisade. The American garrison, under the command of Lieutenant Joseph Perkins of the 24th Regiment, was short lived in the fort. An expedition of militia and native troops dislodged the Americans after a three-day siege. The British were quick to rename the post after their commander, William McKay. For the rest of the War of 1812, the British remained watchful over Prarie du Chien from Fort McKay. The Americans would try, twice, to take the post back. Both efforts would fail far from the post. When word of peace reached the fort, and the terms of that peace the garrison was in shock. Everything was to return to how it was before the war. So the garrison followed the order to the letter and burned Fort McKay to the ground and marched out. The American army was quick to re-establish an outpost mirroring the original fort but this time naming it Fort Crawford in 1816. The garrison would serve the local population keeping the peace and enforcing trade regulations. It also served as the site for the signing of the Treaty of Prairie du Chien which would establish boundaries between tribal lands of the local natives. The fort was evacuated and abandoned in 1826 after the Mississippi River overflowed its banks. Two murders would see the army return to prevent the violence from turning into a full-blown conflict. And while it didn’t happen it was decided that the army would stay.

Project:1812 - The Forts of Prairie Du Chien
Stone footings from the first Fort Crawford

The trouble was that due to the location of the old fort. The flood had done serious damage to the work. There was additional flood danger not to mention a cesspool where diseases would flourish among the garrison. But the garrison would have to remain there while a new fort was built to the south of the town on the mainland under the watchful eye of Colonel Zachary Taylor, future President of the United States and Lieutenant Jefferson Davis, future President of the Confederate States of America. The garrison at the old fort was in good hands, Dr. William Beaumont was in charge of keeping the men in good health and took the opportunity to conduct research on the human digestive system, the knowledge he gained formed the basis of our modern understanding of the system, much of his work was conducted at the old Fort Crawford. The old fort was finally abandoned in 1832 when the garrison moved into their new stone barracks. The site would sit empty for a decade or so before being purchased by Hercules Louis Dousman. Hercules was a business owner and son of Michael Dousman, the man who helped keep the population of Mackinac Island safe during the British capture in the opening action of the War of 1812. Hercules would begin to establish a family estate on the site in the mid-1840s. The site would be passed along to his son H. Louis Dousman and his widow after his death in 1868. Under the junior Dousman, an Italian Styled villa was constructed on the property and occupied by his mother until her death in 1882. The Dousman family would continue to occupy the home, known as Villa Louis until 1913. The villa was restored and turned into a museum in 1930s thanks largely to the efforts of Hercules’ granddaughters, Victoria Dousman Bigelow, and Violet Dousman Young. The site was taken over by the state’s historical society in 1950.

Project:1812 - The Forts of Prairie Du Chien
Villa Louis as it stands today

The new Fort Crawford on the mainland would continue to watch over the area through the mid-19th century. The garrison would participate in the Black Hawk War and the titular Chief Black Hawk would surrender and become a prisoner of Fort Crawford. With the force relocation of the area tribes to Iowa, of which the garrison would again be a part. The need for the post decreased with the last troops marching out in 1856. When the American Civil War began the fort was used as a recruit depot and training station. It was also selected as a site for a US Army General Hospital. The Swift Hospital opened in 1864 and would serve close to 1500 Union troops during its single year of operation. With the hospital’s closure in 1865, the fort would never see military service again. The land was sold off in parcels, the buildings were either sold as homes or simply torn down for building materials. The Swift Hospital building was turned into a Roman Catholic private girls school. When the twentieth-century dawned all that was left was the ruins of the fort’s old hospital. The local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution started a fundraising campaign to purchase the ruins and the three-and-a-half parcels of land it sat on, and in 1925 they had raised all the needed funds. The old hospital was restored and rebuilt and in 1960 opened as a museum dedicated to the efforts of Dr. Beaumont and the fort’s history.

Project:1812 - The Forts of Prairie Du Chien
The second Fort Crawford’s hospital as it stands today as a museum

Today you can visit both sites. Historic Villa Louis features the 1868 Italian villa as well visitors can see a restored Blockhouse similar to the ones that once stood over Fort Shelby/McKay/Crawford as well as ruins and footings that were discovered during the restoration of the site. The Fort Crawford Museum was turned over to the City of Prairie du Chien in 1996 and has expanded to include all local history as well as the original exhibits about the fort and the work of Dr. Beaumont. The Swift Hospital building has long since been demolished in its place is a prison.

For more details on visiting these history sites, please check out their websites:
Fort Crawford Museum: www.fortcrawfordmuseum.com
Historic Villa Louis: villalouis.wisconsinhistory.org

Written with files from:
Ferguson, Gillum. Illinois in the War of 1812. Champaign, IL.: University of Illinois Press, 2012. Print.
Collins, Gilbert. Guidebook to the Historic Sites of the War of 1812. Toronto: Dundurn, 2006. Print.
Web: villalouis.wisconsinhistory.org/About/History.aspx
Web: www.fortcrawfordmuseum.com

Photos: Hasselblad 500c – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Ilford FP4+ @ ASA-100 – Photographer’s Formulary Developer 23 (stock) 6:00 @ 20C

Project:1812 – Raid on Gananoque

The life blood of Upper Canada was the St. Lawrence River, long before it was the mighty seaway we know today it was just a river, often times areas of rapids and flowed past several loyalist settlements that were established following the American Revolution. The river was a link to the major centers of the colonies of British North American, the mighty fortress and administrative capital of Quebec City and the major seaport of Halifax to the smaller settlements in Upper Canada. It was also the weak point, cut off access to the river at either end and you could choke Upper Canada. In fact part of the initial plan of the American invasion was the take Montreal, cutting off access to troop and supply reinforcements from Quebec City in Halifax. But the General Dearborn attack on Montreal never materialized.

Project:1812 - Raid on Gananoque
The plaque commemorating the raid, it’s near the wonderful Gananoque Brewing Co.

But in September 1812 a new group of American soldiers were deployed to the frontier. The men of the 1st US Rifle Regiment, dressed in green and armed with rifles from the Harper’s Ferry arsenal and trained sharp shooters arrived in the St. Lawrence River Valley. A small detachment under Captain Benjamin Forsyth made their first foray into British territory in the early mornings of the 21st of September, 1812. Captain Forsyth’s detachment of seventy odd riflemen landed a good two miles west of the small settlement of Gananoque. Established shortly after the United Empire Loyalists were forced out of their homes in the newly formed United States of America, the settlement’s founder Colonel Joel Stone was fiercely anti-American and while the settlement was small in size it was a major stopping point for British supply flotillas.

Project:1812 - Raid on Gananoque
The King Road today, better known as King Street or Highway 2

Moving along the King’s Road (what is today Highway 2 or King Street in Gananoque), the group of riflemen were surprised to find a pair of local militia cavalry men of the 1st Leeds Militia, the first trooper was dropped by one of the riflemen but the second got away, surprise it seemed was no longer on the side of the American raiding party as they moved quickly to get into the town before the alarm could be raised. The trooper rode hard raising the alarm in the town before continuing on to Kingston to warn the British regular troops stationed there. The small force of citizen soldiers of the 2nd Leeds Militia gathered what they could. A rag-tag group of mostly farmers dressed in whatever they could find and armed with their own personal firelocks. The odd line of men formed up across the King’s Road to meet the small American raiding party managing only a single ragged volley. Forsyth’s Rifles unscathed charged in to engage the rag-tag militia troops at close quarters.

Project:1812 - Raid on Gananoque
The river that the militia were chased over.

The men of the 1st US Rifle Regiment had the town with the militia run off to their homes the men located and burned the government warehouse they also located the home of Colonel Joel Stone, ransacking it a stray bullet managed to injury Stone’s wife as well. The whole action took a half hour and by the time the reinforcements from Kingston arrived there was no sign of the American raiders. The British crossed the river burning a supply dump and the start of a blockhouse in retaliation. The raid did change the British attitude towards their supply lines, defenses were built up in Gananoque, Elizabethton (today Brockville), and Prescott (Fort Wellington). Also the young Lieutenant James FitzGibbon, student of General Sir Isaac Brock was assigned to arrange for escorts for the supply flotillas along the river.

Project:1812 - Raid on Gananoque
The plaque to the town’s founder Joel Stone, although there are conflicting reports if he was even present during the raid.

Today Gananoque is a busy tourist town and the western end of the 1000 Island Parkway, it also acts as the Canadian Gateway to the 1000 Island River tours. There is a small plaque at the west end of King Street (Highway 2) right near the river that the militia fled over. There are other plaques to Colonel Joel Stone located just across the street. If you do find yourself in the area it’s well worth a stop also pop into the Gananoque Brewery Co.

Written with Files from:
Web: www.warof1812.ca/gananoque.htm
Web: www.warof1812.ca/batgan.html

Photos:
Pentax 645 – SMC Pentax A 645 35mm 1:3.5 – Kodak Tri-X 400 @ ASA-200 – Pyrocat-HD (1+1+100) 10:00 @ 20C

Project:1812 – Benjamin Forsyth

A hero in his home state of North Carolina and bane to the British supply lines along the St. Lawrence River there isn’t much known about the early life of Benjamin Forsyth. What is known is passed down as family legend by his ancestors. Born around 1760 to James and Elizabeth Forsyth in either Hanover, Virginia or Stokes County, North Carolina lost his father at a young age. By 1794 Benjamin was beginning to establish himself with the purchase of some land in Stokes County near Germantown, North Carolina. He married in 1797 to Bethemia Ladd with whom he had six children. He joined the 6th US Infantry in 1800 as a Second Lieutenant serving only two months before an honorable discharge. He served in both 1807 and 1808 as the Stokes Country representative in the North Carolina General Assembly.

Project:1812 - Raid on Gananoque
The raid against Gananoque was the one that put Forsyth on the map
Pentax 645 – SMC Pentax A 645 75mm 1:2.8 – Kodak Plus-X Pan – Kodak TMax Developer (1+4) 5:45 @ 20C

With tensions between the United States and England moving towards a war footing Forsyth rejoined the US Army this time as a captain in the newly formed 1st US Rifle Regiment. This elite group of sharp shooters used rifled muzzle loaded weapons rather than smooth bore muskets. They were sharp-shooters, snipers if you will. Captain Forsyth and his men were moved north when war was declared and by the fall of 1812 were raiding along the Canadian side of the St. Lawrence River. Their first action was at the small town on Gananoque which saw the American destroy British supplies and show a weakness in the lines. Further actions by ‘Forsyth’s Rifles’ earned the captain a reputation both among the American senior officers and the British, and made him a legend among his men. After four years in the service and no sign of promotion, Forsyth using the same tenacity he showed in the field wrote to President James Madison requesting a brevet (field) promotion to Major in thanks for his service. The President agreed and in January 1813 issued Forsyth a full promotion to major, then in February a field promotion to Lieutenant-Colonel. Using his new rank he lead another raid against the village of Elizabethtown, today Brockville, Ontario in retaliation for an earlier British raid. His raid a success he rescued the American prisoners and took several of his own along with supplies. Upon his return to his base at Ogdensburg, New York, the citizens feared a swift response from the British garrison and urged Forsyth to leave, he refused. The resulting attack by the British garrison at Prescott saw the town destroyed and the 1st US Rifle Regiment retreating to Sackets Harbor.

Project:1812 - Raid on Ogdensburg
There isn’t much left in relation to the war in Ogdensburg these days…
Rolleiflex 2.8F – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Kodak TMax 400 – Kodak TMax Developer (1+9) 20:00 @ 20C

But the war was far from over for the men of the 1st US Rifle Regiment. Forsyth and his rifles continued on serving with distinction at the battles that saw York (Toronto, Ontario) and Fort George in the Niagara region captured. Following that they were moved back into the St. Lawrence region late in 1813 and while part of the campaign to capture Montreal they were not present at the two major battles at the Chateauguay and Crystler’s Farm. Forsyth would continue to lead raid in the last year of the war around Lake Champlain, his last action was at the battle of Odelltown in Quebec where he refused an order to retreat not seeing an ambush and for his actions was killed on the 28th of June, 1814.

Project:1812 - The Battle of York
Looking down at Lake Ontario near the landing site of Forsyth and his riflemen during the Battle of York
Pentax 645 – SMC Pentax A 75mm 1:2.8 – Kodak Tmax 400 – Kodak TMax developer (1+4) 6:45 @ 20C

Despite his final act and the general poor response from the officers for his insubordination Forsyth was a legend during the war, and is showed by the high view that General Henry Dearborn had of the man. Bejamin’s son would go onto to serve in the US Navy only to be lost at sea in 1829. His family would eventually move to Tennessee and lived out their lives quietly. In North Carolina Forsyth County was established in 1849 and a historic plaque is mounted on the side of the road near Germantown where his home once stood.

Written With Files from:
Web: ncpedia.org/biography/forsyth-benjamin
Web: www.ncmarkers.com/Markers.aspx?MarkerId=J-12

Project:1812 – The Treaty of Ghent

Wars are won often through sheer force of arms, then a treaty is signed or just a cease fire put in place controlled by the side who holds the upper hand. And while the real war continued to rage across the Atlantic Ocean, both sides began to open up a new campaign, one to end the war in the ancient Flemish town of Ghent in the Kingdom of the Netherlands (today part of Belgium). The Americans sent John Qunicy Adams, Henry Clay, James A. Bayard, and Jonathan Russell. The British party was much smaller, Vice-Admiral James the Lord Gambier, Admiral of the Red, Under Secretary of State Henry Goulburn, and Doctor William Adams, a doctor of Civil Laws in the Royal Navy.

Project:1812 - Battle of Fallen Timbers
The monument to the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the American victory resulted in the 1795 Treaty of Greenville, which the British negotiators insisted on using to form the boundrey of the Native “Buffer Zone”
Bronica SQ-Ai – Zenzanon-S 80mm 1:2.8 – Kodak Tri-X 400 (400TX) – Kodak Xtol (Stock) 7:00 @ 20C

While the Americans demanded that the Royal Navy stop their practice of blockade and pressing men into the service, which had been the sole reason for the war in the first place, the British demanded that the Americans give a large part of their territory to the native peoples to allow them to form an “Indian Nation” which would be made up of the future sates of Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Ohio, and Indiana. There were also the matters of the continued use of British controlled waters on the east coast by American fishermen, and the border between the British colonies and the United States. The Brithsh of course refused to answer the question of impressment and the Americans were not about to give up territory to the natives who had been a thorn in their sides since their westward expansion. The British of course claimed the buffer zone was to honour the agreement between Techumseh and General Sir Isaac Brock, the real reason was that they wanted to prevent any future attempts at annexing their colonies by the United States, the native allies were nothing more than pawns to them. Proposal and counter-proposal bounced back and forth as each side tried to out-bluff the other. Henry Clay, a card player, believed that if they stood firm, the British would eventually back down. The truth was that the British party was facing increasing pressure from home to get a treaty signed and the war ended, and that the idea of a buffer territory was not as important to the British parliament as was maintaining access to the the Mississippi River as a trade route and holding onto captured territory in what would become Maine, along with Mackinac Island and Fort Niagara. Both sides did want peace, but they wanted it on their terms.

Plattsburg, New York - Eastman 5363
British losses at Baltimore and Plattsburg allowed negotiations to swing more in the favour of the Americans despite the British holding territory east of the Penobscot River in what is today Maine.
Nikon F4 – AF Nikkor 35mm 1:2D – Eastman 5363 @ ASA-25 – PMK Pyro (1+2+100) 11:00 @ 20C

News from North America continued to complicate matter. The stalemate in the Niagara Region after Drummond’s night assault against the American beachhead at Fort Erie failed to dislodge the Americans. And while General Ross’ expedition managed to defeat the American army at Bladensburg and burned Washington DC, they had failed to take Baltimore. Sherbrooke had taken territory in what is now Maine, a good 100 miles east of the Penobscot River and McDoual had managed to hold off an American attempt at recapturing Mackinac Island. Prevost on the other hand despite having the men and experienced commanders had failed to capture Plattsburg and refused to launch another attempt at Sacketts Harbor. The war had turned into a statemate, and with the war already costing the British close to ten million pounds and the Americans close to defaulting on loaned owed to pay for the war, both sides needed another way out. They both needed to save face, peace with honour. It became clear that the only way this could be done is to return to how everything way before the war started in 1812.

Project:1812 - The Treaty of Gent
While today the site is occupied by an Espirit store, in 1814 it was occupied by the hotel in which the treaty was negotiated
Contax G2 – Carl Zeiss Planar 2/45 T* – Kodak Plus-X 125 – Kodak Xtol (1+1) 7:30 @ 20C

Status Quo Ante Bellum became the goal, any sticking points that had held up negotiations for the previous months melted away. Gone was a buffer zone, impressment, trade, fishing, land. And still two sides argued. Even the Duke of Wellington weighed in on the matter, stating that neither side had the right to demand territory, as the Americans failed in their invasion and the British failed to hold any territory aside for a few small pieces that were relatively unimportant. It took a few more days but a new treaty was forged, and at a half-past six in the evening on the 24th of December both sides now happy, signed the treaty, the war was over. Of course the treaty would not prevent the blood letting at New Orleans and Mobile. The Prince Reagent (the future King George IV) ratified the treaty a few days after it was signed. The American government and President James Madison would do the same in February 1815.

Project:1812 - The Treaty of Gent
Detail shot of the memorial plaque for the Treaty of Ghent, placed by the Daughters of 1812
Contax G2 – Carl Zeiss Planar 2/45 T* – Kodak Plus-X 125 – Kodak Xtol (1+1) 7:30 @ 20C

Eleven articles make up the Treaty of Ghent. There is no mention of impressment, boarders, fishing and trade. The native allies are mentioned, but not a buffer zone, or the 1795 treaty line, rather they are forced back to how things were in 1811. Eleven articles made it seem like there was never a war at all, but the blood on the ground and ruined lives spoke other wise, so the eleven articles made it seem like it was all fought for nothing. It would take several more treaties through the remainder of the 19th century to forge the border that Canada and the United States enjoy today. And while the tensions remained high, it never came to war again. If you’re interested in reviewing the treaty as a whole you can at the website of the Library of Congress.

Written with Files from:
Web: avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/ghent.asp
Berton, Pierre. Flames across the Border, 1813-1814. Markham, Ont.: Penguin, 1988. Print.
Hickey, Donald R. Don’t Give up the Ship!: Myths of the War of 1812. Urbana: U of Illinois, 2006. Print.

Project:1812 – George Prevost

One of the more contested figured in the Anglo-American War of 1812 was the Governor General and Military commander of British North America, General George Prevost. Prevost was groomed into the military from an early age, born the 19th of May, 1767 in the province (now state) of New Jersey to a lieutenant-colonel in the British Army, Prevost attended schools in both the American colonies and England before being commissioned an ensign in the 60th Regiment of Foot, his father’s regiment, in 1779. Prevost soon rose quickly through the ranks, mostly due to his having a grandfather who was a banker in Amsterdam as a relative. He served as a lieutenant in the 47th of Foot and a captain in the 25th of Foot, before returning as a major to the 60th of Foot at age twenty-three. Because of his fluency in French he was appointed the Lieutenant-Governor of St. Lucia in 1798 and his service in the colony showed him to be a popular governor. But health issues in 1802 saw him returned to England. But the stay was short lived, when France again threatened British interest in the Caribbean he was sent to take the governership of Dominica, where his leadership saw the successful defense and removal of the French threat from the area. His service was rewarded with promotion and governorship of the colony of Nova Scotia where he successfully promoted trade with the British colony from the New England States of the United States, this despite the embargo implemented by President Thomas Jefferson. Again Prevost’s efforts did not go un-noticed and in 1811 he was promoted to Lieutenant-General and appointed Governor General of British North America and moved to Quebec City as war clouds gathered. He immediately saw that defenses around the city were improved and saw that the other strong points in the colonies of Lower and Upper Canada were improved.

Project:1812 - The Battle of Queenston Heights
Brock’s Monument on Queenston Heights – Queenston, Ontario
Pentax 645 – SMC Pentax A 645 75mm 1:2.8 – Kodak Tri-X 400 – Kodak HC-110 Dil. B 6:00 @ 20C

When war was declared in the summer of 1812, England was in a full out shooting war with France and could not spare the needed troops to reinforce the North American colonies so Prevost was ordered to take a defensive stance. This immediately put him at odds with the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, General Isaac Brock. Prevost wanted none of the brash general’s action and kept most of the regular troops stationed at the two major cities in British North America, Quebec City and Halifax, often refusing to reinforce Brock, fearing he would just invade the United States. When he received word that the British Parliament had revoked the Orders in Council, the laws that sparked the war in the first place, Prevost was so sure that it would see the US revoke their declaration of war he worked through Brock’s second-in-command, General Roger Hale Sheaffe, arranged for a ceasefire on the Niagara Frontier with the American army commander, General Henry Dearborn. And while the cease fire kept Brock from invading the resulting American attack at Queenston Heights in October 1812 resulted in the death of General Brock and a string of poor Lieutenant Governors to replace him through 1813. And while he was focused mainly on defense, he did order a retaliatory strike against US forces in Ogendensburg in response to their raids along the St. Lawrence River. He also personally led the disastrous second attack against the main US Navy station at Sacketts Harbor. But the battle Prevost is most known for is the 1814 attack on Plattsburg on Lake Champlain in New York. The governor found himself with thousands of veteran troops and commanders to launch an invasion of the United States, but rather than let those who were used to such attacks he put his own people in positions of command and he again led the force himself. This often put him at odds with the commanders when he refused to accept their suggestions and ultimately saw the attack fail. Prevost was of the mind that to take command of the town he needed to first secure the lake, and when word was received that the British squadron was soundly defeated, ordered a full retreat, despite the fact that his brigade commanders were in a sound position to flank the American defenses on the opposite side of the Saranac River and overrun the mostly-militia forces of General Alexander McComb. When word of this reached England it would have far reaching consequences on the peace negotiations taking place in Ghent, Belgium. Even Sir Arthur Wellesley, who had personally selected the commanders to send to reinforce Prevost recommended his removal.

Project:1812 - Sackets Harbor
The Battle of Sacketts Harbor Memorial on the original Battlefield in Sacketts Harbor, New York
Rolleiflex 2.8F – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Kodak TMax 400 (TMY-2) – Kodak TMax Developer (1+9) 20:00 @ 20C

The now humiliated Prevost left Quebec City for the last time on the 3rd of April, 1815 with the hastily passed thanks of the colony’s legislative assembly. When he returned to Horse Guards (Headquarters of the British Army) his reports were for the most part accepted. It was only when the reports from the Admiralty and Commodore James Lucas Yeo about Prevost’s actions were received that options turned against the General. Prevost requested a court martial to clear his name. Due to the time it would take to bring witnesses from British North America, the date was set for January 1816. In an odd twist of fate, Prevost, already in poor health died a couple weeks prior to the date of the court martial. While many still view Prevost in a poor light, the general, having been forced into a defensive stance for many years had lost the same fire he had in his early days. Prevost’s biggest downfall was his ego and his unwillingness to step aside to more veteran commanders. Unlike many other figures in the war, there are no memorials to Prevost, only a few portraits of the former governor in Nova Scotia and Quebec City.

Project:1812 - The Battle of Plattsburg
A home just north of Plattsburg that served as Prevost and his Staff’s billet on their march to Plattsburg – Chazy, New York
Rolleiflex 2.8F – Carl Zeiss Planar 80mm 1:2.8 – Kodak TMax 400 (TMY-2) – Kodak TMax Developer (1+9) 20:00 @ 20C

Written with Files from
Collins, Gilbert. Guidebook to the Historic Sites of the War of 1812. Toronto: Dundurn, 2006. Print.
Hickey, Donald R. Don’t Give up the Ship!: Myths of the War of 1812. Urbana: U of Illinois, 2006. Print.
Berton, Pierre. Flames across the Border, 1813-1814. Markham, Ont.: Penguin, 1988. Print.
Web: www.eighteentwelve.ca/?q=eng/Topic/21
Web: www.biographi.ca/en/bio/prevost_george_5E.html
Web: www.warof1812trail.com/prevost.htm

Project:1812 – Joseph Willcocks

Publisher, Parliamentarian, and Traitor, the strange case of Joseph Willcocks started in 1773, born in the Republic of Ireland, at the age of 27 the young man found his way to the town of York in Upper Canada. He soon found employment as the private clerk of the receiver general, Peter Russell, but it would not last, as Russell was not pleased with Willcocks’ advances towards his half-sister. But that did not stop Willcocks, who found another patron quickly in the form of the colony’s chief justice, Henry Allcock and with his influence was appointed to Home District Sheriff. However his views on the land laws, he soon found himself in opposition of the Lieutenant Governor, Francis Gore, Gore quickly dismissed both Allcock and Willcocks for bad conduct. That did not stop Willcocks who moved to the Niagara region and began publishing The Upper Canada Guardian, in which he publicly expressed his concern for the laws and arbitrary use of power. He soon found himself elected to the colony’s Parliament and was then arrested and jailed for contempt of house during the 4th Parliament. Despite this, he continued to be elected, but he continued to face opposition from the newly appointed Lieutenant Governor, General Isaac Brock. During the 5th Parliament, Willcocks and his allies managed to block some of Brock’s moves to prepare the colony should war be declared with the United States. Brock, despite his views of Willcocks, recruited him to secure the alliance and loyalty of the Six Nation Natives. A mission Willcocks succeeded in, even fighting along side them at Queenston Heights, that saw the death of Brock.

Project:1812 - The Burning of Niagara
Downtown Niagara-On-The-Lake today is a hot tourist destination in the Niagara Region.
Pentax 645 – SMC Pentax-A 645 35mm 1:3.5 – Ilford Pan F+ (ISO-50) – Blazinal 1+50 11:00 @ 20C

With Brock’s death, Willcocks saw the rapid change in the political landscape in Upper Canada, Brock’s successors were not as diplomatic in dealing with the colony’s population. The breaking point however was during the American invasion and occupation of the Niagara Region in 1813. He watched as any opinions that were considered disloyal were dealt with in a harsh way. So he did what he thought best, and as a sitting member of the parliament of Upper Canada offered his services to the American force occupying the Niagara region. Bringing with him a group of fellow citizens. He was commissioned a major and raised up a force known as the Canadian Volunteers to fight for the American army. But his commanders continued to mis-trust the turncoat, anyone who turned traitor once, could turn again. Willcocks is most remembered, and vilified for his successful petition to General McClure, to destroy the town of Niagara, today known as Niagara-On-The-Lake during the American withdrawal in December of 1813, thinking that through this the local population would turn to a more pro-American stance. The action however had the opposite reaction, and a week later, Fort Niagara was overrun and occupied by British forces under orders from General Gordon Drummond and everything between Fort Niagara and Buffalo was reduced to ashes.

Project:1812 - Acaster and the Bloody Assizes
The former site of the Rousseau Hotel, where the trails during the Ancaster Assize took place. Today a modern pub and shop occupy the spot.
Pentax 645 – SMC Pentax A 645 35mm 1:3.5 – Kodak Tri-X 400 (400TX) – Kodak HC-110 Dil. B 6:00 @ 20C

In 1814, Willcocks along with several other men, were officially labelled traitors to the Crown and charged as such by the Assize of Ancaster. Willcocks managed to avoid arrest, some of his compatriots were not as lucky. But the long arm of the law was not far from Willcocks, in September of 1814, while leading a raid against the British Batteries during the final weeks of the Siege of Fort Erie, a British musket ball crashed through his chest, killing him. His body was laid to rest in Buffalo, and in 1830 was relocated to an unmarked grave in Forest Lawn Cemetery, forgotten by the country he cast his lot with, and continues to be vilified to this day by Canada.

Grey Coats
Modern Military Reenactors portraying the Canadian Volunteers at the Siege of Fort Erie in 2011.
Nikon D300 – AF-S Nikkor 70-200mm 1:2.8G

Written with Files from:
Web: www.eighteentwelve.ca/?q=eng/Topic/65
Web: www.biographi.ca/en/bio/willcocks_joseph_5E.html
Hickey, Donald R. Don’t Give up the Ship!: Myths of the War of 1812. Urbana: U of Illinois, 2006. Print.
Berton, Pierre. Flames across the Border, 1813-1814. Markham, Ont.: Penguin, 1988. Print.